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103 Q&A related to Breast cancer

Breast screening | Imaging | 04-2012
As imaging specialists and consultants, radiologists will generally operate within the published and recommended guidelines of practice put out by their governing bodies. The main source of such guidelines is ...

Breast screening | Imaging | 03-2012
Breast MRI is currently an adjunctive imaging test and there s not enough sufficient evidence to recommend routine use of it for screening. Mammography remains the imaging modality of choice. ...

Angiosarcoma | Oncology | 03-2012
Angiosarcoma is a relatively rare cancer with an incidence of 2-3 per million people. As with so many cancers, its cause is unknown in most cases, but there s significant ...

MRI for breast screening | Imaging, Oncology | 09-2011
The imaging of breasts to detect cancer includes mammography, digital mammography, MRI along with ultrasound, 3D ultrasound, some nuclear medicine tests and even galactograms. The first three are the most ...

Breast cancer risk and the Pill | Oncology | 09-2011
The link between estrogen exposure and increased risk of breast cancer has been studied in many different manners. There s epidemiological evidence that looks at endogenous estrogen that has shown ...

Arimidex vs tamoxifen | Clinical Pharmacology | 08-2011
Anastrozole Arimidex is an aromatase inhibitor that acts by inhibiting aromatase. This decreases estrogen concentrations, as aromatase is responsible for the conversion of androgens into estrogen. Tamoxifen is an estrogen ...

Breast exam with no breast | Oncology | 06-2011
Many women who have had a mastectomy or bilateral prophylactic mastectomies remain at risk for breast cancer. They have the potential to have cancer anywhere along the embryological nipple line ...

Genetics of breast cancer | Oncology | 06-2009
If you re simply asking the absolute risk of a man with breast cancer s offspring developing breast cancer versus a woman s offspring, then the man is more likely ...

Check symptoms for breast Ca recurrence | Oncology | 04-2009
The Canadian Medical Association Journal published several years ago a series of guidelines for breast cancer patient care including follow-up recommendations. At least three randomized clinical trials provide evidence that ...

Mammograms can miss lobular cancers | Oncology | 03-2009
I assume you mean after appropriate surgical intervention. Lobular carcinoma in situ is more a prognostic factor than a disease. It predicts a high incidence of not only invasive lobular ...

Does tamoxifen prevent breast cancer in at-risk women? | Oncology | 01-2009
That s a good question. Tamoxifen has been studied as a primary prevention drug for those people who had a high risk of breast cancer based on a breast cancer ...

Does ASA prevent colon cancer? | Oncology | 06-2008
ASA is an inhibitor of COX-1 and -2, and it does have a role to play in the formation of colon cancer. This has been shown in both animals and ...

Breast implants: annual mammo's? | Imaging | 02-2008
Absolutely The presence of breast implants isn't a contraindication for annual screening mammography. An implant displacement technique was developed by Dr. G.W. Eklund in 1988 that significantly improves accuracy. In ...

At what age to stop mammograms | Oncology | 12-2007
Screening recommendations haven't been broken down according to the use or non-use of HRT. Although there's some rationale to considering women on HRT at higher risk -- and therefore to ...

Adult sequelae of Hodgkin's therapy for kids | Oncology | 10-2007
Patients such as this one have a much higher incidence of breast cancer, specifically in the inner quadrants of the breasts I've seen 3 cases in the last 10 years ...

Prescribing raloxifene to prevent breast Ca | Clinical Pharmacology, Oncology | 06-2007
The question about the appropriate use of raloxifene for breast cancer prevention is an interesting and evolving one. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modifier that was originally developed to ...

Prescribing raloxifene to prevent breast Ca | Oncology | 06-2007
Last year, the results came out for the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene STAR , a trial that compared the two drugs as primary prevention for women at risk of ...

Is thermography a good screen for breast Ca? | Imaging | 04-2007
Breast cancer BC is now the leading form of cancer in North American women. Its incidence has increased from 1 in 20 in 1960 to 1 in 7 today. International ...

Does a transsexual need mammograms? | Oncology | 03-2007
There are no studies in this particular area that could give you a definitive answer, but I ll do the best I can. I assume this individual is genetically male ...

Is HRT safe when risk of breast Ca is high? | Obstetrics Gynecology | 09-2006
The decision to use HRT in any patient is often a risk vs benefit scenario, weighing the severity of symptoms and the resultant quality of life against the likelihood of ...

Is HRT safe when risk of breast Ca is high? | Oncology | 09-2006
You want to define the family history a little bit more in this case. Any of the following breast cancer under age 50, bilateral disease, breast cancer associated with ovarian ...

Breast cancer in men | Oncology | 07-2006
When we try to assess if a patient has a potential hereditary breast cancer, we look at several factors. These include age less then 50, bilateral disease, generational drift with ...

Can bisphosphonates be useful in bony cancers? | Oncology | 05-2006
Bisphosphonates amp amp 151 specifically, pamidronate, zoledronic acid and clodronate amp amp 151 have all been studied in individuals with cancer. When given to patients with known bony metastasis, they're ...

Is melatonin the magic bullet for breast CA? | Oncology | 05-2006
The relationship between light exposure and breast cancer has been proposed for many years to try to explain the higher incidence of disease in industrialized countries. The recent studies where ...

Mastectomy: same-side arm caveat | Oncology | 03-2006
This is an excellent question, and the answer is controversial. The data for it dates back to a time when routine breast cancer surgery was the old radical mastectomy based ...

Screening for breast cancer after mastectomy | Oncology | 12-2005
Bilateral prophylactic mastectomies have been shown to decrease the incidence of breast cancer but not eliminate it. This is because it's nearly impossible to remove all breast cells as the ...

Is there an upper age for bone density scans? | Obstetrics Gynecology | 08-2005
I haven't ever thought of stopping bone density testing or mammography on my patients. For bone density, I test each woman according to her risk of bone loss and follow ...

Is long-term use of TNF-a inhibitors risky? | Oncology | 08-2005
Excellent question There is an interaction between TNF-a inhibitors and malignancies, and depending on how you interpret the scientific papers, you initially wonder if the risk is increased or decreased. ...

When to use gadolinium contrast for MRI | Imaging | 07-2005
In computed tomography CT , intravenous iodinated contrast is used to enhance the image with information on the vascularity and characteristics of organs and pathologic lesions. The iodine density blocks ...

Teenager at high breast Ca risk | Obstetrics Gynecology | 03-2005
The history of injectable medroxyprogesterone is interesting in that studies in dogs on this medication have shown an increased risk of breast cancer, but this has never been proven to ...

Is there evidence for a paroxetine/cancer link? | Oncology | 02-2005
The association of the antidepressant paroxetine with breast cancer as published by Cotterchio et al in 2000 caused a fair bit of controversy. In her article and subsequent letters to ...

Are breast cysts always benign? | Oncology | 12-2004
In medicine, nothing is always or never. The vast majority of breast cysts are benign, especially in premenopausal woman. If the cyst fluctuates with the cycle, it's often benign. But ...

The best OCP Tx for acne | Dermatology | 09-2004
Your question has two parts, which I will answer separately. Acne vulgaris, androgenetic hair loss, hirsutism and even hidradenitis suppurativa are influenced by endogenous androgens. Some women are genetically more ...

Does testosterone cream increase breast Ca risk? | Endocrinology | 04-2004
Some studies suggest that high testosterone levels in women are associated with an elevated risk of breast cancer, likely through an indirect mechanism. The fact that some testosterone is converted ...

Breast thermography: forget about it | Imaging | 04-2004
Well, certainly the first response might be why is a patient going to a chiropractor for breast imaging, never mind using an antiquated modality such as breast thermography Thermography was ...

Investigating axillary lumps | Imaging | 02-2004
Unilateral or asymmetrical axillary adenopathy is very common. The causes are often benign in nature, including reactive changes in the lymph nodes from regional infection lymphoid hyperplasia or those due ...

Antidepressants: do they increase the risk of breast cancer? | Psychiatry | 02-2004
One epidemiological study AmJ Epidemiol 2000 151 952-7 suggested that some antidepressants, such as paroxetine and TCAs, may be associated with an increased risk of breast disease. This research, however, ...

Using vaginal estrogen creams after breast Ca | Obstetrics Gynecology | 12-2003
Although I'm not familiar with the product you've described, any vaginal estrogen cream that hasn't been tested for the blood levels of estrogen it produces shouldn't be used on breast ...

How does CA 125 stack up as a screening test? | Oncology | 08-2003
CA 125 testing doesn't have the sensitivity and specificity needed as a screening tool for ovarian cancer, so don't use it on its own in either low- or high-risk patients. ...

What's best for vaginal dryness? | Obstetrics Gynecology | 06-2003
The effective treatment of vaginal dryness with safe, studied and approved medications, both hormonal and nonhormonal, is well documented using products like estradiol rings or vaginal tablets, and polycarbophil vaginal ...

Bisphosphonates and survival in advanced Ca | Oncology | 05-2003
There s good evidence that regularly giving potent bisphosphonates cuts the incidence of bone complications pathologic fracture, need for palliative radiation, hypercalcemia in patients with bone metastases from breast cancer, ...

Alternatives to HRT after breast Ca | Obstetrics Gynecology | 03-2003
Unfortunately, there's very little consensus on this common problem. I feel that close communication with this patient's oncologist will help you with a team approach to help her. Be careful ...

Advice for sons of BRCA gene carriers | Oncology | 03-2003
The sons of a patient carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene would be at higher risk of breast cancer, but their absolute risk would still be low. So, they don't ...

Does early OC use cause more breast Ca? | Oncology | 02-2003
It's difficult to answer this specific question, but keep in mind that the evidence is clear that the use of modern OCs isn't associated with a greater risk of breast ...

Raloxifene to prevent breast Ca: are we there yet? | Oncology | 12-2002
A large international trial under the direction of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Program NSABP is currently investigating the use of raloxifene to prevent breast cancer in women with an ...

Cooling hot flushes from leuprolide in prostate Ca | Oncology | 12-2002
In women on anti-estrogen drugs for breast cancer, the most effective treatment for hot flushes and sweats is sustained-release venlafaxine 75 mg daily. At this dosage, side effects are minimal ...

Early breast Ca screening: who and how? | Oncology | 11-2002
In Canadian guidelines, early screening consists of starting annual mammography and physician breast examination beginning at age 40 instead of the usual recommendation of age 50. In my opinion, teaching ...

IMPACT OF HER2 IN BREAST Ca | Oncology | 10-2002
HER2, also designated erbB2 or neu, is an oncogene a gene associated with cancer that's often amplified producing more gene copies in breast, salivary gland and ovarian carcinomas. In each ...

CAN RALOXIFENE HELP IN BREAST CA THERAPY? | Oncology | 09-2002
There might be theoretical advantages of raloxifene over tamoxifen in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, either for adjuvant therapy or in the setting of recurrent disease. To date, ...

RETHINKING HRT FOR OSTEOPOROSIS | Rheumatology | 09-2002
The latest study looking at whether low-dose oral estrogen CEE 0.3 mg daily , alone or in combination with progestin, is as effective as standard dosing e.g. CEE 0.625 mg ...

Breast Ca: when to do BRCA testing | Oncology | 08-2002
The usual indication for BRCA testing in a patient with breast cancer is to determine the risk of breast or ovarian cancer in siblings or offspring. The test is done ...

GOSERELIN AS A TX FOR BREAST Ca | Oncology | 08-2002
The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone LHRH agonists, of which goserelin is one, exert their effect by stopping the production of gonadal steroid hormone production testicular androgens in males and ovarian estrogens ...

Men and the BRCA gene | Oncology | 06-2002
A male carrier of the breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, would have a higher risk of breast cancer, but the absolute risk still wouldn't be very high because ...

Do SERMs prevent breast cancer? | Oncology | 05-2002
Most theoretical evidence and preclinical data suggest that pure antiestrogen drugs, such as raloxifene, should lower the risk of breast cancer without raising the risk of the adverse effects of ...

IS PET BEST BET TO SPOT TUMOUR SPREAD? | Imaging | 02-2002
At this point in time, the answer is a definitive amp quot likely no. amp quot I believe we're right on the cusp of a new age of tumour scanning ...

DOES BRCA MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN SCREENING? | Oncology | 02-2002
The presence of a breast cancer susceptibility gene in patients obviously indicates a significant risk for the development of a breast malignancy 85 at age 70 . In practice, this ...

CA SCREENING AFTER THYMUS IRRADIATION | Oncology | 01-2002
I'm not aware of firm guidelines for follow-up in this small group of patients. If there's a history of thymic irradiation in childhood, it would seem appropriate to follow annually ...

men and breast cancer risk | Oncology | 10-2001
About 30 of cases of male breast cancer turn out to have a family history of breast cancer. In males who show germ-line mutations of the BRCA2 gene, the risk ...

INVESTIGATING GYNECOMASTIA IN ELDERLY MEN | Endocrinology | 06-2001
Gynecomastia frequently shows up in elderly men and is almost always benign. It's due to an imbalance in the estrogen testosterone ratio, either in the circulating hormones or at the ...

IS FIGHTING FEAR OF HRT FUTILE? | Obstetrics Gynecology | 06-2001
The question here isn't of convincing women that HRT won't kill them but that, if the risk benefit equation is in the favour of taking HRT, not taking it will ...

WHEN TO START EARLY MAMMOGRAM | Imaging | 05-2001
I consider positive family history to mean a mother, sister or daughter with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer. I recommend that all women over 40 years of age have ...

BREAST IMPLANTS BLOCK VIEW | Imaging | 04-2001
Just because some women have breast implants doesn't mean they should be left out of the breast cancer screening process. Although implants obscure normal breast tissue and make the mammogram ...

TAMOXIFEN THERAPY: HOW LONG? | Oncology | 03-2001
If this woman is taking tamoxifen for adjuvant treatment of resected breast cancer, the recommended length of treatment is five years. If, however, she's taking this drug for palliation of ...

HRT AFTER BREAST CANCER: THE CONTROVERSY CONTINUES | Oncology | 02-2001
In the past, estrogen replacement therapy was thought to be contraindicated in patients with a history of breast cancer. Recent data from small observational studies and anecdotal experience has tended ...

IS DOMPERIDONE A BREAST CANCER RISK? | Oncology | 01-2001
Domperidone does elevate prolactin levels, but there's no evidence that it increases the risk of primary or recurrent breast cancer. The role of prolactin in causing or exacerbating breast cancer ...

IS CEA TESTING WORTH IT? | Oncology | 01-2001
Measures of CEA levels in breast cancer, primary or metastatic, have a sensitivity of about 60 and a specificity around 80 for the presence of active disease. In other words, ...

BONING UP ON HRT AND SERMS | Rheumatology | 12-2000
The answer to your second question is no. Further studies are needed and there's no evidence yet to support or challenge the combined use of HRT and a selective estrogen ...

WHY THE FIBRE FLOP AGAINST CANCER? | Oncology | 10-2000
Although some studies have questioned the effectiveness of high-fibre diets in lowering the incidence of cancer, the majority of evidence still supports the hypothesis that higher fibre intake lowers the ...

RALOXIFENE VS TAMOXIFEN IN BREAST CANCER THERAPY | Oncology | 10-2000
Studies are currently underway to compare the efficacy and safety of raloxifene to tamoxifen. Until we have the results of those clinical trials, tamoxifen is still the standard agent for ...

RESTORING VAGINAL HEALTH AFTER BREAST CANCER | Obstetrics Gynecology | 09-2000
Using local estrogen to treat urogenital atrophy in breast cancer survivors is a difficult problem. Certainly, we want to avoid systemic estrogens in these patients -- since Premarin vaginal cream ...

BREAST AND OVARIAN CA SCREENING IN A HIGH-RISK WOMAN | Oncology | 08-2000
There's obviously a significantly increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer in this woman's daughter. The results of BRCA genetic testing will help to tell just how high her risk ...

SCINTISCAN VS MAMMOGRAPHY FOR BREAST CANCER | Imaging | 06-2000
The first articles on 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile MIBI uptake in breast cancer appeared in 1992. Since then, many trials have been carried out on this new form of breast imaging, now ...

CAN A MOUSE VIRUS SPREAD BREAST CANCER IN PEOPLE? | Oncology | 05-2000
A transmissible viral factor resulting in mammary cancer in the offspring of affected female mice has been demonstrated by Bittner in the past. There's never been any evidence, however, that ...

BREAST CANCER: WHAT'S THE REAL RISK WITH HRT? | Oncology | 05-2000
The figure you've cited is a gross overestimate of the risk of breast cancer in women receiving postmenopausal HRT. Two recently published meta-analyses state that the risk of breast cancer ...

MAMMOGRAPHY AFTER 65: IS IT WORTH IT? | Imaging | 03-2000
Depending on which medical organization or which country's national cancer institute you're looking at, there's a lot of difference in opinion about the appropriate age to both start and stop ...

CONCERNED ABOUT A CORTICOSTEROID-BREAST CANCER CONNECTION | Oncology | 03-2000
Although it's theoretically possible that the immunosuppressive effects of long-term corticosteroid use might lead to increased malignancies, clinically it hasn't turned out to be the case. There's also no evidence ...

BATTLING METASTATIC CANCER WITH BISPHOSPHONATES | Rheumatology | 02-2000
There's substantial evidence that bisphosphonates reduce the musculoskeletal complications of malignancy, including hypercalcemia, pathologic fractures, and the need for palliative radiation therapy. For this reason, bisphosphonates are currently recommended as ...

INVESTIGATING MALE BREAST LUMPS | Imaging | 01-2000
The most common reason for imaging the male breast is finding an asymmetric thickening or mass clinically that almost always turns out to be asymmetric benign gynecomastia. Most male breast ...

BREAST CANCER ON DAD'S SIDE OF THE FAMILY | Oncology | 12-1999
Unless the father himself has breast cancer, the family on the paternal side diagnosed with breast cancer will all be second-degree relatives -- aunts, grandmothers and cousins. If one or ...

BREAST CANCER: NO POLIO VACCINE LINK | Oncology | 09-1999
I'm not aware of any reports of increased risk of breast cancer following polio immunizations. Such an association seems implausible and I'd discount the possibility unless presented with a well-done ...



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